Glossary

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2

For security reasons, the EU introduced a provision as of 1st July 2009 for the movement of goods with non-EU member states under which imports and exports will be subject to a prior notification requirement (24-hour rule). For Switzerland as a third country, this regulation would have a considerable impact on procedures concerning the flow of...

A

ADR
Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par route. ADR is the common name for the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road. The ADR directives are valid throughout Europe and govern transnational road transport of hazardous materials. The ADR lays down which goods...
AEO
AEO (Authorised Economic Operator) The authorised economic operator AEO (in German the abbreviation «ZWB/Zugelassener Wirtschaftsbeteiligter» is used) is a status which is granted to legal entities which are deemed to be reliable in terms of the security of the international supply chain. Authorised economic operators are fast-tracked when it...
Agreements are becoming increasingly important within the context of international commerce. Given the different written laws and forms of legal practice that exist across the world and the different interpretations of the law that are culturally conditioned, it is impossible to devote too much attention to devising “good” agreements. Model...
The status of approved consignor/consignee allows the exporter or freight forwarder to carry out export and transit customs clearance at his domicile; the goods do not have to be transported to the customs office of departure.
An association of ten independent South East Asian nations, ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) was founded in August 1967 in Bangkok by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei joined the association in 1984, followed by Vietnam in 1995. Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Laos were accepted as full members of the...
The ATA carnet (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) is a customs document which enables the temporary importation of goods into another country and their subsequent reimportation into Switzerland without custom duties being imposed. Amongst other things, the ATA carnet absolves the party usually liable for customs duty from having to pay...
Authorised exporters can generally issue declarations of origin on invoices with no value limit and are also exempt from having to sign these in their own handwriting. In the case of movements of goods covered by the free trade agreements which make provision for movement certificates EUR-MED and/or EUR.1, they are therefore not required to issue...
Forum for Swiss Foreign Trade and Investment

B

The Bilateral Agreements I are a package of seven sectoral agreements which Switzerland and the European Union (EU) negotiated between 1994 and 1998 in the areas of research, agriculture, civil aviation, public contracts, the movement of persons, overland transport (rail and road) and technical barriers to trade (mutual recognition of conformity...
The bill of lading is the document for a concluded sea freight contract, as well as a receipt and document of transfer. It is issued on request of the shipper by the carrier or its agent and regulates the legal relationship between the carrier and the recipient. By signing the bill of lading, the carrier confirms that the goods matching the...
German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology

C

The CE marking serves as proof that a product meets the basic health and safety requirements under EU law, and that the necessary conformity assessment procedures have been performed. CE marking is mandatory for all goods covered by the 20 or so EU directives under what is known as the New Approach in cases where these goods are to be put into...
The certificate of origin proves a product’s country of origin. The authorities of many countries require that goods that are imported be accompanied by a certificate of origin or certified commercial invoice. There are several reasons for this: certificates of origin play a role, for example, in applying preferential tariffs, monitoring import...
CIS
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is an association of eleven republics that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. The association was established in 1991 by Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine. These were closely followed by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan....
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The import and export of such species is prohibited. CITES - Wild Fauna and Flora
CMR
The "Convention de Genève relative au contrat de transport international de Marchandises par Route" (CMR) is the convention on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road. The document regulates the responsibilities and liabilities of the parties involved. The CMR is the counterpart of the bill of lading in sea freight and the Air...
A Common Customs Tariff (CTT) is necessary in a customs union such as the European Union. If member states applied different tariffs to third countries, goods from third countries could be imported via the country with the lowest tariff, thus profiting from the principle of free trade within the customs area. The Common Customs Tariff for EU...
As of 1 October 2013, all intra-community deliveries in the EU (among others) must be substantiated with the confirmation of arrival. The confirmation of arrival must contain the following: - name and address of the recipient - quantity of the object of delivery and description - place and month of receipt or the end of the transport of the object...
Corruption acts as a brake on free competition in many countries. As such, any assessment of a foreign market should also cover the risks presented by corruption. The non-governmental organisation Transparency International regularly publishes a Corruption Perceptions Index with details of around 90 countries. The index helps the reader evaluate...
Countertrade refers to a form of international trade arrangement whereby the seller is obliged to accept goods or, less frequently, services from the buyer country in return. Countertrade is used if currency and trading activities are disrupted. There are different types of countertrades: Barter: A barter deal is a simple exchange of goods with no...
Courts of arbitration are private (i.e. not state-run) courts which make final and binding judgments on disputes. For a dispute to be considered by a court of arbitration, both parties have to consent. The court’s decision is usually legally binding for both parties and can be declared enforceable before a judicial authority. Parties involved in...
There is provision for diagonal cumulation within the scope of the EuroMed origin system. This is possible because all FTAs use the same origin rules. The diagonal cumulation of origin regulations of several FTAs allows the addition of the raw materials and value creation, which was provided in the individual member countries of the EuroMed zone,...
Customs duties are a form of tax payable to the State mainly when importing goods into a customs territory. From a protectionist perspective, protective duties play an important role as they are designed to afford domestic producers some protection against foreign competition. In most countries, customs duties are levied as an ad valorem duty,...
A customs account for centralised settlement (ZAZ) can be recommended to all importers and shippers who have to pay import or export duty on trading goods to the Federal General Directorate of Customs. Importers who have an account at the Federal Customs Administration are charged all customs and VAT duties directly with the following terms: VAT:...
The customs assessment notice of the Swiss Federal Customs Administration is the document of proof for an export or import. The documents need to be stored for at least 10 years. See also "eVV - electronic customs assessment notice"
The EU customs declaration is used by the declaring party to specify which customs procedure a product should undergo. The declaration can be made by any person in a position to present the responsible customs office with a product (or have a product presented on their behalf) in accordance with the regulations laid out for this purpose. The same...
An association formed by a number of countries who agree not to levy customs duties when goods are exchanged between members and to apply a common external tariff to goods from non-member countries. The European Union (EU) is an example of a customs union. Details of its customs rates are provided in TARIC (Tarif Intégré de la Communauté) and are...
The customs warehousing procedure of the European Union is an EU customs procedure whereby non-European Community products can be transferred to another location after their arrival in the customs territory without incurring import duties. Products are stored in a customs warehouse from where they are later either re-exported (transit storage) or...

D

A Declaration of Conformity (DoC) is mandatory for certain product groups to indicate conformity with the European Union’s health and security requirements. Only then can products use the CE marking and be marketed in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA). In short, the DoC is a list of the standards a product meets or must...
In cases where one or more packages are being sent, the declaration of origin can be made on the invoice itself, instead of using a EUR 1 movement certificate. In such cases, however, the total value of the originating products must not exceed CHF 10,300 (or CHF 8800 under the Switzerland/Faroe Islands Agreement). The declaration of origin is to...
Documentary collection is a means of reducing the payment risks associated with international trade. Under the documentary collection system, an exporter instructs their bank to collect money from the buyer or their bank in exchange for forwarding them the despatch papers. The amount of money collected corresponds to the amount stated on the...
Double taxation agreements (DTAs) avoid earnings and assets being taxed in two countries. They can be particularly helpful in ensuring that the Swiss economy does not suffer any disadvantage compared to foreign competitors. Switzerland has concluded agreements with all the important industrialised countries to avoid double taxation. The agreements...
Dual-use goods (civilian and military). These types of goods usually require an export licence from the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO.
Goods whose final destination is uncertain, high-customs goods, and goods subject to quotas may be temporarily stored untaxed and with duty unpaid (with or without time restrictions) in a duty-free warehouse. It is operated by private warehouse companies but has a public character and is open to all interested parties. Certain manipulations of the...

E

e-dec Export has replaced the VAR as per 01.04.2010. To declare exports or imports with e-dec, a company needs to have their own software with e-dec functions for the transmission to the Swiss Federal Customs Administration, or it is also possible to instruct a service provider (forwarder, declarant) with it.
e-dec web is an internet application, which can be accessed through the website of the Swiss Federal Customs Administration. With e-dec web, the paper forms 11.010 (Import) and 11.030 (Export) have been replaced by January 2013. The use of this application is free and accessible for all declarants. More on the topic here: http://www.switzerland-ge...
EAN
The EAN – also called International Article Number – is a product identification standard for commercial articles. It has 13 digits (for normal articles) or 8 digits (for small-volume articles) and consists of a country identification (prefix), participant number (company) and article number. Usually , the number is printed on article packaging in...
Economic sanctions are an attempt to influence the behaviour of states by means of economic measures. There are different kinds of economic sanctions, or embargoes. A comprehensive embargo is the complete ban on trade relations with the sanctioned country. Import and export blocks, as well as bans on capital transfers, are among the most important...
EEN
The Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) is the largest network of contact points providing information and advice to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Europe. The network is active in the 28 EU member states and countries of the EFTA and beyond. It consists of about 600 organisations such as chambers of commerce and regional development agencies...
Electronic customs assessment notices can be obtained by the person or company who's TIN (traders identification number) is mentioned on the export declaration at the Swiss Federal Customs Administration. For this, you need to have a certificate and there is a signature check. The eVV needs to be stored electronically for at least 10 years. A...
EORI (Economic Operators Registration and Identification) EORI is a central database of all customs parties in the European Union. An EORI number is required for every customs transaction in the EU. As a rule, a Swiss company does not require a number of this nature, except if it operates in the EU as a customs declarant (e.g. in the case of DDP...
Description only in German.
The term EU Customs Clearance refers to the import customs clearance in the first EU country of entry with subsequent delivery to another Member State. No import duty is levied in the country of entry. Exporters from third countries (e.g. Switzerland) have "EU status". This means that, in the case of exports within the EU, they can benefit from...
The supplier’s declaration is intended to relay information on the preferential origin of products transported within the EC. This is necessary because no certificate of origin, in the sense of the Free Trade Agreement, is required when products are being delivered from France to Germany for example. (The EU is a customs union; therefore there are...
Switzerland has concluded free trade agreements with a number of different states or groups of states. These agreements afford products the right to preferential treatment (waiving or reduction of customs duties) assuming they satisfy the agreed conditions on origin and have valid proof of their origin. A EUR 1 movement certificate can be used as...
Name for the common currency of the European Union (EU), which is currently used by only 19 (as of May 2016) of the 28 Member States. The UK, Denmark, Sweden, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Croatia continue to use their traditional national currencies. In addition, the euro is used in a number of other countries, e.g....
An economic zone based on a common rule of law encompassing the European Union (EU) and the EFTA states of Liechtenstein, Norway and Iceland. Switzerland, also a member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), rejected entry to the EEA in a 1992 referendum. The EEA agreement has been in force since 1994. Unlike Switzerland, Liechtenstein –...
Today, (only) Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland still belong to the EFTA (European Free Trade Association). Denmark, Finland, the United Kingdom, Austria, Portugal and Sweden opted out of the Association and subsequently joined the European Union (EU). Founded in 1960, the EFTA has its headquarters in Geneva. The aims of the founding...
A community of European states established under the Treaty of Maastricht (this is officially known as the Treaty on European Union, or EU treaty for short). The treaty was signed in 1992 and came into force in 1993. The EU is based on the European Community (EC), which the Maastricht Treaty changed profoundly in terms of its role and...
The Goods Control Ordinance (GKV) regulates the export of dual-use goods as well as military goods that are not subject to the War Material Act, such as simulators. The GKV implements decisions of international agreements and non-binding international control measures. For example, export applications are not granted if they relate to the...
Swiss exporters can quickly get into liquidity problems if the foreign buyers of their goods request very long payment periods (lasting months or years). Banks offer export financing services (export credits) to avoid such situations. These arrangements work as a bridging mechanism between the time goods are actually exported or a service...
Swiss Export Risk Insurance (SERV) offers insurance for export financing or exports of consumer and capital goods, construction and engineering work and other services by small and medium-sized businesses as well as large enterprises. There are no minimum requirements with regard to company size or order volume. SERV is active in areas of the...

F

Export factoring involves the ongoing sale of debts on export payments to a factoring company. It provides a means of raising finance and offers insurance against the risks associated with debts on export payments. Three parties are involved in the export factoring process: the exporter, the exporter’s customers (importers/debtors) and the...
FDI.net is the World Bank's information website for private investors. The web portal offers free location analysis and information on all things related to foreign direct investment in 175 emerging and developing nations. The website is operated by the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in Washington, a member of the World Bank Group...
The acronym FIATA stands for the Fédération Internationale des Associations de Transitaires et Assimiliés (International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations). This international federation of freight forwarders represents the interests of the industry globally. As an umbrella organisation for the freight forwarding industry, the FIATA's...
Forfaiting refers to the purchase of payment debts on goods and services (mainly relating to export business) before the debts are due to be settled. Once the debt has been transferred, the party buying the debt has no right of recourse to the previous owner of the debt. The system is based on the exporter granting a supplier’s credit to the...
Free Movement of Persons Switzerland – EU/EFTA On June 21 1999, the European Union and Switzerland signed seven bilateral agreements including the Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons, which came into force on 1 June 2002. The right of free movement is complemented by the mutual recognition of professional qualifications, by the right to buy...
As a general rule, free trade agreements encompass the international movement of goods between contract parties. Goods covered by such agreements benefit from a reduction in or even an exemption from custom duties. However, the goods must originate from one of the states signed up for the agreement in order to qualify for this preferential...
Since Switzerland is not a member of the European Union (EU), the vast majority of our trade is based on the Free Trade Agreement between Switzerland and the EU from 1972. The text of this Agreement of the 22nd July 1972 between the Swiss Confederation and the European Economic Community (SR 0.632.401.)is available online: http://www.admin.ch/ch/d...
A free trade zone is an area for which participating countries have signed agreements to eliminate trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas. However, each state participating in the free trade zone adopts its own foreign trade policy towards countries that are external to the zone. As an integration form, it differs from a customs union, in which...
A free trade zone is an area for which participating countries have signed agreements to eliminate trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas. However, each state participating in the free trade zone adopts its own foreign trade policy towards countries that are external to the zone. As an integration form, it differs from a customs union, in which...

G

General Agreement on Trade in Services The GATS is a contract of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) regulating trade in services. Together with the General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs (GATT 94) and the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), the GATS is one of the three pillars of the WTO's multilateral...
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of the WTO
GSP
Generalized System of Preferences System for non-discriminatory customs preferences established at UNCTAD in order to facilitate the participation by developing countries in world trade. For country-of-origin goods from developing countries, Switzerland grants customs preferences to imports from developing countries under the Generalized System of...

H

Since 1st January 1988, the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) has been applied for goods description in the EU. For the Common Customs Tariff (CCT), not only the internationally harmonised 6-digit code, the so-called nomenclature, but also an 8-digit code, the so-called combined nomenclature that includes Community...

I

Import regulations determine the requirements and approval conditions for importing goods (products, foodstuffs, animals) or services in terms of duties, definitions of goods and documentation. They are particularly used to restrict the amount or value of goods that can be imported and are normally based on international trade agreements or on...
Incoterms, or International Commercial Terms, are a series of international sales terms. They provide internationally binding supplier conditions, especially with regard to which of the contractual parties has to bear transportation, customs and insurance costs, which party carries the transport risk, and at what point the risk is passed to the...
Strictly speaking, this term refers to the totality of all the markets within a national economy where goods and services are traded or provided for internal use. The rules applying to the Swiss internal market are laid down by the federal law on the internal market (BGBM, SR 943.02) of 6th October 1995. In the broader sense of the term, however,...
The public sector awards contracts amounting to approx. 16% of a country’s GDP (approx. 1500 billion € in the EU) each year. These projects are advertised publicly, are independent of the economic situation and offer interesting export possibilities for Swiss SMEs in all industries. The tendering platform STEP (Selective Tenders & Projects)...

L

The Letter of Credit is a means of reducing the payment risks associated with international trade. Under this system, the buyer instructs their bank to pay the seller (or Swiss exporter) a specific sum of money within a specific period of time upon receipt of specific documentation relating to the goods being sold. As a result, the exporter is...

M

Mercosur is the abbreviated name for the common market in South America. The member countries are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The following countries are associated members: Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Columbia, Ecuador.
The WTO principle « most-favoured-nation treatment » (MFN) means, that under this agreement, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. Grant someone a special favour (such as a lower customs duty rate for one of their products) and you have to do the same for all other WTO members. Some exceptions are allowed; for...
MRA
Mutual Recognition Agreement Within the framework of this agreement, import states agree to recognise testing procedures on product requirements carried out by export states under the condition that products have been tested in accordance with the regulations of the import state and the testing body complies with the requirements in the agreement...

N

"Non-tariff barriers" is the term used to refer to all the regulations which are not tariffs, but which can prevent or restrict the import of products. They impede access to the market for foreign suppliers Examples: technical regulations and standards, packaging and labelling requirements, import quotas, discrimination during clearing, etc.

O

An international organisation for economic cooperation and development to which 30 mainly heavily industrialised countries, including Switzerland, belong. The OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) is the successor to the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) which was founded in 1948. Its predecessor was...

P

The Pan-European Cumulation System is not dissimilar to the Swiss-EU Free Trade Agreement. It was established to create an extended European free trade system. With the adoption of the Pan-European Cumulation System, the system that already operated between the EC and EFTA states for trade involving originating products was expanded to include the...
A right awarded by an official patent office which guarantees the inventors of commercially exploitable objects exclusive user rights. The patent enables the inventor to prevent others from manufacturing, selling or using their invention. However, the inventor is also able to transfer their rights to others by selling their patent or through...
The protection of innovations, for example through patents, is becoming increasingly important in the face of competitive pressure and the risk of imitations. Patent information In Switzerland, the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (EIGE) in Berne gives free access to patent information. The full range of patent literature is...
A presentation to customs informs the EU customs authorities that imported goods or goods for export are at the customs office or another authorised location. The decisive element in the presentation is the act of informing, as opposed to the physical bringing of the goods to the location.
The principle of identity applies to actively processing and converting goods to make finished products. According to this principle, the products that are temporarily imported into an economic area (e.g. the European Union) in order to be finished, processed or repaired must be identical to the subsequently exported goods. The opposite of this...
All goods imported into Switzerland must be assessed in accordance with the Customs Law and the Customs Tariff Act. For goods that are only temporarily imported into a customs territory in order to do processing work, the procedure of inward processing can by applied. The respective goods can thus be imported duty-free. In some cases, it is also...
All goods exported from Switzerland must be assessed in accordance with the Customs Law and the Customs Tariff Act. The Customs Law stipulates several customs procedures for this purpose (e.g. the procedure of outward processing). The procedure of outward processing is not always necessary when products are exported for processing. Goods that are...
Consumers place a great deal of importance on product safety. As part of his or her basic preparations, any exporter wishing to avoid nasty surprises must find out about the legal and technical product safety requirements (product regulations) that apply in the target export market. Manufacturers and even importers can be held liable for defective...
The tendering platform STEP (Selective Tenders & Projects) continuously collects national and international business opportunities and invitations to tenders and passes on invitations to tender and projects which are relevant to the registered Swiss SMEs without time delays. Take the opportunity to test STEP free of charge at: http://www....
Each year, the public authorities award contracts that are put out to public tender and offer interesting export possibilities for Swiss SMEs in all industry sectors. The tendering platform http://www.tenders.ch continuously collects national and international business possibilities and tenders.

R

The European Union (EU) is an extremely important partner for Switzerland. Geographically, because Switzerland is almost entirely surrounded by the EU; culturally, because Switzerland shares three important European languages - German, French and Italian - with the EU; politically, because both Switzerland and the EU are committed to human rights...
The reverse charge procedure is a procedure whereby the liability for value-added tax can be passed to the recipient. The procedure is applied, for example, when providing services abroad.
It can often be difficult, particularly for smaller companies, to assess and manage the risks associated with developing export businesses. As well as those risks associated with the competition that could threaten the export programme’s financial success, the prospective target market may also present product-related risks. Such product-related...

S

Schengen cooperation facilitates travel within the EU as a result of the elimination of systematic identity controls at the common borders of the Schengen member states (internal borders). At the same time, a number of measures have been introduced to improve international justice and police cooperation in the fight against crime. These include...
SERV offers insurance for export financing or exports of consumer and capital goods, construction and engineering work and other services by small and medium-sized businesses as well as large enterprises. There are no minimum requirements with regard to company size or order volume. SERV is active in areas of the credit insurance market that are...
SERV offers insurance for export financing or exports of consumer and capital goods, construction and engineering work and other services by small and medium-sized businesses as well as large enterprises. There are no minimum requirements with regard to company size or order volume. SERV is active in areas of the credit insurance market that are...
This declaration procedure represents a simpler way of making customs declarations in the EU. It only requires absolutely essential details and documentation to be submitted when making a customs declaration. An additional declaration can/must be submitted at a later date, depending on the authorisation. This may provide more general information...
A. The Single Administrative Document Written customs declarations must be made on a form that is in line with the official “model”. The “model” form is the Single Administrative Document (Reg. (EEC) No. 2913/92 Art. 62 para. 1 “Community Customs Code” combined with Reg. (EEC) 2454/93 Art. 205 para. 1 “Community Customs Code”). Since 1988, the...
The Swiss Import Promotion Programme (SIPPO) has been promoting imports into Switzerland and the European Union from the developing/transition countries and the countries of South-Eastern Europe on behalf of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (seco) since 1999. The programme supports the import of products from small and medium-sized...
The Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) is a worldwide unique number used to identify logistics units (containers, pallets, cases, or cartons). The eighteen-digit number is based on the EAN system. The code contains information on the sender of the goods, an exact product description and further specifications, as well as a check number. To...
Standards usually refer to the rules of engineering. There are also, however, standards relating to other areas. One such area is accountancy, which is subject to the International Accounting Standards (IAS). Standards promote rationalisation, make quality assurance possible, encourage safety both inside and outside the workplace, harmonise...
Anyone presenting goods for customs clearance on the single European market is basically required to make a summary declaration as soon as the goods are presented. The declaration contains a list or directory of the goods presented. The summary declaration involves a number of forms. These are typically form number 0306, commercial papers or a...

T

Switzerland’s working tariff has been available on the Internet at www.tares.ch since 3rd May 2004. Apart from providing details on the Swiss working tariff, tares also offers explanations of the customs tariff, as well as rulings concerning the tariff charged on goods. In addition, the service offers a number of search functions and links to...
TARIC is an acronym for what is known as the Integrated Tariff of the European Communities (Tarif Intégré des Communautés Européennes). It is based on the Combined Nomenclature (CN), which covers some 10,000 headings (using an 8-digit code) and constitutes the basic nomenclature used for the Common Customs Tariff, the Community’s foreign trade...
TED
Tenders Electronic Daily, the online database of the Official Publications Office of the European Communities, contains details of all the public procurement invitations to tender published in the Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union. Any public procurement contracts exceeding a certain value (threshold value) must be published...
The customs temporary admission procedure applies to goods that are not imported definitely but are used only temporarily and are then re-exported without having been changed. In most cases, there are no definitive import duties for temporary imports because they are only due for foreign goods remaining in Swiss customs territory and being...
The public sector awards contracts amounting to approx. 16% of a country’s GDP (approx. 1500 billion € in the EU) each year. These projects are advertised publicly, are independent of the economic situation and offer interesting export possibilities for Swiss SMEs in all industries.
Under this principle, goods lawfully produced in a Member State of the European Union (EU) can also be sold in any other EU state. The principle is based on a judgment by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) from 20th February 1979 on case number 120/78. The German food manufacturer REWE had been prevented from importing the French liqueur known as...
The term “threshold value” plays an important role within the context of public procurement. It refers to the limit above which an invitation to tender has to be published in the Official Journal of the European Union, thereby opening the door to competitors from across the EU. The individual areas of construction, goods and services are subject...
TIN
TIN means "Traders Identification Number" This is the registration of an exporter or a forwarder at the Customs Administration. The TIN is necessary for customs declarations with e-dec. Only with an own TIN number the exporter can collect the eVV on the server of the Customs Administration.
The TIR (“Transports Internationaux Routiers”) customs convention is designed to facilitate the international transport of goods by road. It uses the TIR carnet, a standardised international customs document, to regulate the transport of goods. Thanks to the TIR carnet, goods can be transported through any number of countries who have signed up to...
For many companies, participating at the major trade fairs within their industry offers them the best opportunity to present themselves to an international audience, win new customers and maintain existing customer relations. However, participation in a foreign trade fair can be something of a challenge, particularly for small and medium-sized...

V

Value added tax (VAT) is a general consumer tax. It is applied to all stages of production and distribution as well as to the import of goods. It is also charged on the services provided by the domestic services sector and must be paid by those obtaining services from companies based abroad. The bodies responsible for collecting the tax on...

W

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international, Geneva-based institution for promoting international free trade. The World Trade Organization was founded in 1993 by a Final Act of the Uruguay Round, a multilateral series of negotiations within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The decisions of the Final...

Trade4Free

Duty-free in 6 steps - how to benefit from free trade agreements.